Titanium has been used in refineries for over forty years. Initial applications were in tubing for heat exchangers where titanium was specified because of corrosive cooling water. Thereafter, titanium was used increasingly because of corrosive process fluids and lower quality crudes. Applications are extending from shell and tube exchangers to plate and frame exchangers, scrubbers, vessels, fractionating lowers and other related equipment.
Titanium is able to cope with the high hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide contents for other critical processes. Improved life reliability and safety of operation have made titanium the first material choice for many operations.